From time to time the laws of the universe give us a chance to learn a lot about yourself and of themselves these laws. To such cases, as a rule, those who are on the cutting edge of science and technology, the illusion of omniscience. They confidently expect achieve, draw arrows on the map and report their plans to the public. And suddenly the same case. Actually nothing wrong or shameful in such cases, no. Over the last half century humanity is very far gone where he was not invited – and of course, in the battle for a better future a lot of things not taken into account. Sometimes this comes around to bite. Nothing can be done. In the field, two will is the ancients said about any war.

On IDF (Intel Developer Forum) in September 2013, the public was presented the first Intel processor of the fifth generation (Broadwell), manufactured on the 14 nm technology. Then, the head of Intel’s Brian Krzanich announced the start of mass production of these processors “to the end of the year.”

But with the mass production process of 14 nm was really easy. To fix it, partially, was only a year. We started with the youngest and marketing designation Core M. On autumn IDF 2014 in San Francisco Krzanich announced the start of mass production of three models of Intel Core M, and announced the beginning of the era of ultra-slim laptops without fans, noiseless and devastatingly beautiful (in March 2015 with a killer released by Apple, calling it a MacBook).

And then Krzanich announced the approach of another revolution. The revolution had a name, her name was Cannon Lake. They (processors Cannon Lake) have been made on the technology of 10 nm, their mass production was scheduled for mid-2016 is the reputation of Intel was restored, the hall thundered applause. Equipment at factories Intel has been updated, it worked perfectly, and Brian found it possible to take the risk.

Problems with the production was repeated when I tried to start mass production of 4-nuclear processors. Black stripe?

Under the “TIC-TAC” (tick-tock), professed by Intel, Broadwell was a phase “tick”. In the second half of 2015, Intel promised to start mass production of processors phase “so”, Intel Skylake. And, suddenly, fulfilled his promise. Production began in the third quarter of 2015. At IDF 2015 the coming of the Cannon Lake has moved to the second half of 2017.

Kaby Lake

August 30, posokrushatsya about the difficulties of the transition to the 10Nm technology, Intel announced the release of its third-generation 14-nanometer processors. Called the new generation Kaby Lake. On behalf of the small lake in Canada, in the province of Ontario, near the city of thunder Bay.

The processor manufactured under the new, improved, process – 14nm+. But what about the “tick-tock”? Since 2006, Intel has strictly followed the rule, which no one outside the company was not particularly persistent: the dimension of the technologists was reduced every two years, generation of processors were changed every year. The industry has become accustomed to this rhythm, by updating the computers once a year.

We’ll talk about that later found by the leadership of the Intel solution seemed very interesting. As if even creative.

By and large, computer manufacturers was hardly interested in the technology of new generation of processors – the main thing was to keep up with the crowd. Or to comply with any of the advantages (I’m talking about Apple). But Intel executives thought that the company would lose face if she just violate the established rule. Moreover, for technical reasons.

Architecture Kaby Lake, and Skylake was developed in the Department in Intel Israel, Haifa. The head of this branch, Russian Academy of Sciences of Senderovic, said that before them was tasked to make Skylake minimal changes and rework a bunch of the new processor with a graphics generation system of 9.5, but in the development process there were many bright and interesting ideas and changes, by accident, turned out to be significant.

R&D office in Haifa:

Marketing changes, too, were many. The structure of the model range of processors left is almost the same as Skylake, replacing the six in the designation of the CPU at a seven, and Core m5 and m7 Core steel Core i5 and Core i7.

Logos Kaby Lake:

For example, i7-6500U was i7-7500U, and m7-6Y75 – i7-7Y75(!). At the same time, on the elimination of m5 and m7 is announced. Whether I forgot, or something. Unknown.

Promised that in applications the performance of processors Kaby Lake exceeds the same from their relatives-generation Skylake by 12%, and in Internet – 14%. Of course, the tests beyond this Intel is not confirmed.

Major changes

The 14nm process+, large clock rates, much higher clock frequency in Turbo mode, faster switching frequencies (Skylake switches to Turbo mode for more than 20ms, and Kaby Lake is less than 20 MS).

Processors Core i3 allowed overclocking of the clock frequency (overclocking).

In Skylake was the declared support of the PCIe 3.0 x4 M. 2 working with (and NVMe), but realized it was only in Kaby Lake.

In addition, the system-on-chip processors Kaby Lake included controllers USB 3.1 and Thunderbolt 3 (until Skylake they require a special chip on the motherboard).

The number of instructions executed per cycle and the performance per Megahertz is the same as Skylake.

And Yes, the new graphics – but about it another time.

Process-Architecture-Optimization (PAO)

Transitions to a smaller dimension technology was becoming longer and harder. But just to take the change of the manufacturing process and debug it more time go.

I think the worst of it would not. Every step of the way requires more and more effort, they would have understood.

But great companies (and Intel is one of the great companies, they too are difficult times) ambition little rolls.

Intel announced the replacement scheme of “tick-tock” at the “Process-Architecture-Optimization”. And, in retrospect, became known as Broadwell generation phase of the Process, Skylake processors become phase “Architecture”, and Kaby Lake is located came under the definition phase of the “Optimization”.

Great transition:

And if in 2017, released the long-awaited Cannon Lake, all would have been perfect, but alas.

Advertisements